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Full text of "VCU magazine"

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The President's Report 

Virginia 

Commonwealth 

University 

1980 - 1981 



A special issue of VCU Magazine 
Copyright e 1982 Virginia Commonwealth University 



Vir0nia 
Commonwealth 
University: 

A modern 
experience 
in tradition 




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Heritage has long been important to Virginians, 
as indeed it sliouid be, for ttiere is a proud 
tradition of ieaderstiip in ttie Old Dominion. In 
fact, our state tias been called the birthplace of 
presidents. From Mount Vernon to the White 
House of the Confederacy, Virginia is virtually an 
outdoor museum with its architecture reflecting 
the path of the nation's progress. 

History surrounds us. In fact, on the site of the 
George Ben Johnston Auditorium on the univer- 
sity's campus, the Virginia Convention assembled 
and ratified the United States Constitution. 
Among those present were such famous Virginia 
gentlemen as Edmund Randolph, James 
Madison, George Wythe, Henry Lee, John 
Marshall, Patrlcl< Henry, George Mason, and 
James Monroe. 



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The resemblance today to the times of Mason 
and Monroe may seem slight, but when we 
consider all that has happened over the past 
200 years, it is easy to appreciate the evolution. 
For instance, in 1838 a branch of Hampden- 
Sydney College was opened in downtown 
Richmond. This facility was to be a medical 
college. Just before the Civil War the institution's 
name was changed to the Medical College of 
Virginia. In 1860 the state appropriated revenue 
for MCV's first hospital; thereafter, the college 
was a state-aided institution. MCV later merged 
with the University College of Medicine in 1913 
and is now one of the five largest health care 
facilities in the United States. 

In 1917 a young educator named Henry H. 
Hibbs founded the Richmond School of Social 
Work and Public Health. The first class was 
made up of 31 students, and in 1925 the name 



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was changed to the Richmond Division of The 
College of William and Mary. Fourteen years later 
the name became the Richmond Professional 
Institute of the College of William and Mary and 
remained so until 1962 when RPI separated from 
its mother institution to become an independent, 
state-aided college. From these modest begin- 
nings grew the South's first school of social work 
and the only state-aided professional school of 
the arts in the South. While the RPI legacy is not 
as long as that of MCV, it is no less exceptional, 
thereby making the 1968 merger of RPI and MCV 
a logical move to create a major university for 
Virginia and the nation-Virginia Commonwealth 
University. 



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We are 10,300 employees, 13 academic 
units, 136 degree programs, four teaching 
hospitals, and nearly 20,000 students. We 
are Virginia Commonwealth University. 

As a major comprehensive university in Virginia, 
we contribute to the well-being of the state and the 
nation not only through education and through our 
alumni but also through community service and 
research. It is our research component that blends 
quality education with service. Because of its 
importance, we are proud that we have been in- 
cluded for the past several years in the top 100 
universities in the country in terms of federal support 
for research. 

As a vibrant and respected community of 
scholars, we not only collect and disseminate 
information, we are an active developer of new 
knowledge. We share some of this with you on the 
following pages. 






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Treatment forKepone victims 



Even after he went blind for three 
days and his heartbeat increased to 
180 times a minute, Thurman Dy[<es 
didn't quit his job at Life Science Pro- 
ducts Co., the Hopewell, Virginia, 
firm that made the pesticide Kepone. 

Not until he was hospitalized for 
eight days at VCU's Medical College 
of Virginia Hospitals, with what was 
later diagnosed as Kepone poisoning, 
did Dykes quit. 

Financial pressure was responsi- 
ble for his delay, which Dykes now 
says was his worst decision ever, 
endangering not only his own life but 
that of his wife and two small children 
as well. 

Dykes was not the only one to ex- 
perience dangerous symptoms. 
Other workers had slurred speech, 
loss of memory, and trembling 
hands. Still others suffered severe 
chest pains, pain in the joints, mild 
liver problems, and were diagnosed 
as sterile. 

The workers were exposed to dust 
particles of Kepone which traveled 
through the plant in the air in the form 
of a light powder. Kepone stuck to the 
hair, skin, and clothing of the work- 
ers, and settled on their food as they 
ate at a picnic table inside the plant. 




The exposed workers also brought 
Kepone home to their families. The 
massive dose of Kepone that Dykes 
inhaled, ingested, and absorbed dur- 
ing his four months at the plant weak- 
ened his eyesight, rendered his arm 
nearly useless, and left him sterile 
for life. His young son, conceived 
while Dykes was working at Life Sci- 
ences, was born with a liver mal- 
function, and doctors said perhaps 
the baby's liver wasn't fully devel- 
oped because the Kepone was trans- 
ferred from mother to child. 

All the victims came to MCV 
Hospitals for treatment when the 
chemical poisoning was discovered 
in 1975. At that time, little was known 
about the long-range effects of the 
pesticide on humans. Doctors feared 
it was a cancer causing agent, and 
there was no known way to expel it 
from the body. 

A team of analytical chemists, 
pathologists, and physicians set to 
work to try to find an answer to the 
workers' plight. 

The team discovered that the pes- 
ticide is eliminated very slowly from 
the body, meaning workers would 
suffer the effects of Kepone poison- 
ing for an extended period of time and 
prolong their exposure to a possible 
carcinogen. 

In clinical trials with 21 of the ex- 
posed workers, the team, led by Dr. 
Philip S. Guzelian, Jr., associate pro- 
fessor of medicine, treated the work- 
ers with the drug cholestyramine, an 
agent often used to help lower cho- 
lesterol levels in the blood. 



The Virginia Environmental Endowment awarded Dr^ Philip S. Guzelian, Jr. a 
three-year grant totaling $75,000 to continue research on the health effects of 
environmental chemicals. The new funds will be used to continue the 
research on Kepone and similar poisons. In recent research on other 
chemicals. Guzelian was able to increase the excretion of chlordane from 
the systems of four individuals who had been poisoned with the pesticide. 



Of the 21 studied, half were unable 
to work at the beginning of the study 
because of neurological disorders in- 
cluding tremors, stuttered speech, 
and memory lapses. Eleven patients 
also had severely lowered sperm 
counts. 

The experiment showed that the 
drug accelerated the elimination of 
Kepone from the liver, blood, and fat 
tissues. In treatment with cholestyra- 
mine from six months to one year, the 
levels of Kepone in the blood of the 
workers fell dramatically and by late 
1978 the pesticide was undetectable 
in 18 of 21 patients and at very low 
levels in the three other patients. 

Unfortunately, pesticide poisoning 
is not limited to Virginia or to the pes- 
ticide Kepone. Such events have oc- 
curred with the pesticide chlordane 
in Roanoke, Virginia, and with poly- 
chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 
polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in 
Michigan. Guzelian's discovery holds 
promise for these victims as well. 



Catalysts for synthetic fuel 



In his laboratory, Dr. Gordon A, Mel- 
son , associate professor of chemis- 
try, has perfected catalysts vital to the 
process of converting coal to liquid 
fuels. His research, financed by a 
grant from the U.S. Department of 
Energy, promises a more efficient and 
economical way to achieve liquid fuels. 

Gasoline, diesel fuels, and alcohol- 
based fuels are all obtainable from 
coal . The conversion of coal is ac- 
complished through a liquefaction 
process. Two processes, direct and 
indirect liquefaction, are under inves- 
tigation by the Department of Energy. 

Melson's research relates to in- 
direct liquefaction, which is a two- 
step process. In the first step, coal is 
gasified to a "synthesis gas," a mix- 
ture which consists mainly of carbon 



monoxide and hydrogen. In the sec- 
ond step, the synthesis gas mixture 
is reacted over a catalyst. 

The only commercial liquefaction 
process in use is the Fischer-Tropsch 
process, which was used by the Ger- 
mans to produce synthetic fuels from 
coal during World War II . This pro- 
cess is currently in commercial use in 
the Republic of South Africa in the 
SASOL I (South African Goal, Oil, and 
Gas Corporation) plant. Developed 
over 50 years ago, it uses an iron 
catalyst to produce a wide range of 
products from gases to solid waxes. 
But even under the best of circum- 
stances, coal conversion wastes 
about one-third of the potential 
energy in the coal. 

Melson and two graduates asso- 
ciates, Janet E. Crawford and Ketcha 
J. Mbadcam , have developed new 
preparative procedures for potential 
catalytic materials that have resulted 
in the development of highly efficient 
catalysts, which are more product 
selective for synthesis gas conversion. 



Further work on the catalytic ability 
of the new materials is to be financed 
with a $1 20,000 grant from the De- 
partment of Energy. Results from 
catalytic runs using the newly pre- 
pared and characterized materials 
developed by the VCU researchers 
demonstrated the ability of the ma- 
terials to function as highly efficient 
catalysts for the conversion of syn- 
thesis gas. The new catalysts will not 
only aid in the more efficient produc- 
tion of synthetic fuels but also save 
energy by reducing the amount of 
heat and pressure needed for the 
conversion process. 



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Dr. Gordon A. Melson, professor of ctiemistry, hias been involved in research 
witti the Department of Energy since 1978. He received his doctorate in 
inorganic chemistry from Sheffield University in England and specializes 
in the synthesis, characterization, and reactions of transition metal coordina- 
tion compounds. Melson is the author of several textbooks and a reviewer 
for numerous professional journals and publishing companies. 



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Researching Reyes syndrome 



It started on a Wednesday morning 
when Carmen Lee Brown, age four, 
vomited after eating breakfast. It 
ended several days later with treat- 
ment at the university's Medical Col- 
lege of Virginia Hospitals. 

By Thursday morning , Carmen , 
who had chicken pox, was still throw- 
ing up. The vomiting was sometimes 
quite violent, unlike that often seen 
with virus-related disorders like chick- 
en pox. Carmen would vomit four or 
five times, then cease for several 
hours before starting again. The 
nausea suppositories she had taken 
weren't having their usual success. 
Her mother was beginning to worry. 

When Mrs. Brown watched Car- 
men throw up a teaspoon full of Coca- 
Cola she gave her, she realized 
something unusual was going on. She 
telephoned Carmen's pediatrician, 
and the little girl was quickly admitted 
tea local hospital. 

Once there, Mrs. Brown noticed 
her daughter was acting peculiarly. 
Generally a curious, inquisitive child, 
Carmen wasn't the least bit con- 
cerned with her new environment. 
She didn 't even seem to know what 
was happening. 

Something else was strange about 
Carmen's behavior. Whenever some- 
one tried to examine Carmen , she 
resisted. One nurse tried to take a 




blood specimen and Carmen, who 
usually didn't mind such things, 
struggled forcefully to stop her. 

Just what was affecting Carmen 
was the disorder currently being 
investigated by a nationwide study 
team headed by a VCU associate 
professor of pediatrics. It is known 
as Reye's syndrome. 

Reye's is a condition that primarily 
strikes children who are suffering 
from a virus-caused illness like chick- 
en pox, flu, or a cold. Its symptoms 
are those Carmen exhibited : vomit- 
ing, which may last for up to 24 hours 
and is forceful and relentless : dis- 
orientation ; and violent or unusual 
behavior. The syndrome first affects 
the liver, but a secondary complica- 
tion , brain swelling , is what worries 
doctors most. Not stopping that 
swelling quickly could result in death. 

Dr. Wallace F. Berman, chief 
pediatric gastroenterologist for the 
hospitals, is directing a national col- 
laborative study to evaluate the ef- 
fectiveness of Reye's syndrome treat- 
ment programs. A pilot clinical study 
is currently evaluating two ap- 
proaches to relieving the pressure 
caused by brain swelling. One treat- 
ment consists of intravenously intro- 
ducing an agent into the body which 
helps drain water from tissue of the 
brain, and then transports it into the 
bloodstream and out of the system as 
urine. This treatment is called Osmol 
Therapy. 

The second treatment involves 
Osmol Therapy augmented by certain 
drugs (called barbiturates) that slow 



In addition to chairing ttie National Collaborative Study of Reyes 's syndrome. 
Dr. Wallace F. Berman serves as an advisor to tlie National Reye's Syndrome 
Foundation. The author of numerous articles. Berman is currently researching 
parenteral nutrition in pediatric patients under a grant from Abbott Laboratories 
and is the recipient of a fellowship grant from the National Cystic Fibrosis 
Foundation. 



down the central nervous system, the 
brain. Berman said that although re- 
search indicates these drugs could 
have toxic side effects as well as po- 
tential benefits, they are used by ap- 
proximately 80 percent of physicians 
across the country in treating Reye's. 
Their efficacy has not been proven . 

In Carmen's case, she was lucky. 
The local hospital where she was 
first taken notified MOV Hospitals 
and within a matter of hours she was 
transferred into Berman's care. A 
team of physicians under Berman's 
direction was able to relieve the pres- 
sure causing her brain to swell. With- 
in a period of 72 hours, she was back 
to her old self, investigating her hos- 
pital room, watching television, and 
eating. 

Other children have not been as 
fortunate as Carmen . Reye's syn- 
drome has killed 64 children this year 
out of 430 suspected cases reported 
nationwide. Berman urges parents 
who suspect their children might 
have Reye's to contact the nearest 
medical center, like MCV Hospitals, 
where physicians are more likely to 
be familiar with the disorder. Statis- 
tics show medical centers have bet- 
ter success records than community 
hospitals in treating the disorder. 



11 



Designing for the disabled 



Few teenagers would welcome the 
chance to wear a full body cast for 
nine months, but Lisa Fazio is all 
smiles. 

The cast is removing the crippling 
threat of scoliosis, a disease which 
bends the spine. In the past, those 
with scoliosis became crippled and 
deformed. Now, thanks to an opera- 
tion at Crippled Children's Hospital 
in Richmond. Virginia, Lisa will lead a 
normal life. 

But a full body cast still poses phy- 
sical problems. At a time in life when 
looks are crucial, Lisa was con- 
cerned about continuing to go to 
school in the cast which added eight 
inches of bulk to her neck, six to her 
waist, and three to the top of her 
shoulders. 



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Nancy Hollomon, an assistant pro- 
fessor of fashion design, who spe- 
cializes in clothes for the handi- 
capped, was able to provide some 
solutions. 

Hollomon began working with the 
handicapped five years ago when 
she received funds from the univer- 
sity to stage a fashion show with 
models who were patients at hospi- 
tals and rehabilitation centers in the 
area. 

Through her work, Hollomon has 
discovered that care in fitting the 
pattern can create the optical illusion 
of a regular garment . For patients 
who don't have the ability to lean for- 
ward, she has created "backless" 
jackets and sweaters. For wheel- 
chair patients, she designs dresses 
with some softness at the waist to 
hide the bulk of sitting . So the pants 
will not ride down in the back, she 
cuts them lower in the front and also 
allows extra length at the leg so the 
ankles are covered. 

Other measures include using Vel- 
cro snaps rather than hard-to-maneu- 
ver hooks or buttons and putting zip- 
pers on the side rather than the back. 
For those on crutches she designs 
bigger armholes and suggests rein- 
forced materials to withstand the 
stress. 



The National Endowment for the 
Arts recently recognized Hollomon's 
work with a grant to draft patterns for 
the handicapped for inclusion in a 
booklet. Included will be ways to deal 
with other figure problems caused by 
physical handicaps such as sloping 
shoulders, rounded backs, or legs in 
braces. 

For Lisa, Hollomon designed a 
coat with a hood to cover the extra 
inches of cast. Another Hollomon de- 
sign, jumper and blouse, features 
ragland sleeves to ease the fit around 
Lisa's temporary 22-inch neck, while 
the jumper follows the lines of the 
cast and has ties on the side for a 
better fit. The dress, which is still in 
the works, will also use the ties com- 
bined with a gathered, puff sleeve to 
minimize the extra bulk. 

Hollomon volunteered her ser- 
vices to Lisa because the assistant 
professor believes "it is crucial for a 
teenager to have attractive clothing 
at this time in life." 



I 

Nancy Hollomon, assistant professor of fashion design, started designing 
clotties for ttie handicapped after a friend, an occupational therapist, remark- 
ed. "Why can't handicapped people look fashionable?" The remark started 
Hollomon thinking and with a university faculty grant she produced a fashion 
show for which the 20 models were patients at hospitals and rehabilitation cen- 
ters in the area. In her research, Hollomon has visited hospitals, rehabilitation 
centers, and nursing homes in the state and has worked with arthritis and polio 
victims, persons on crutches, paraplegics, and quadriplegics. 



12 



Search for genetic clues 



In a national genetic study of children 
suffering from a rare form of mental 
retardation caused by a chromosome 
abnormality, a university graduate 
student has demonstrated that cer- 
tain of these children are benefiting 
from new special education pro- 
grams. 

The findings, soon to be reported 
in the Journal of Pediatrics , are the 
offshoot of a study being conducted 
by Louise Wilkins, a Ph.D. candidate 
in human genetics with a speciality in 
cytogenetics. The study includes 85 
children suffering from the Cat Cry 
syndrome. These children are born 
missing a portion of one of their 46 
chromosomes. 

Children suffering from this syn- 
drome, or Cri du Chat syndrome, as it 
is medically known, have many char- 
acteristic facial features including 
very round faces with an impression 
of widely spaced eyes, flat nasal 
bridge, and prominent ears. Many 
also possess serious heart defects 
and suffer from respiratory ailments. 

The study is being conducted with 
the cooperation of the National Cri du 




Chat Parent Club. The president of 
the organization approached the uni- 
versity's Department of Human Gen- 
etics for help. Parents had found that 
pediatricians generally knew very 
little about the syndrome and no one 
could predict what effects the miss- 
ing chromosome portion would have 
on the children as they grew older. 
With the help of the parents' organ- 
ization as well as many professional 
references, Wilkins is able to conduct 
a study which is national in scope. 
The fact that all 85 of the children 
have been raised in a home environ- 
ment as opposed to an institutional 
one is also considered significant. 

The study has been conducted in 
several stages. In the first stage, 
extensive questionnaires probed the 
medical histories of the families to 
determine if any environmental in- 
fluences such as exposure to radia- 
tion or certain types of drugs could be 
responsible for the chromosome 
damage. As yet no definitive cor- 
relations have been found. 

In the second stage Wilkins is 
traveling to areas around the country 
to visit groups of children with Cat 
Cry syndrome. In her meetings, she 
administers psychological tests de- 
veloped with the aid of a consultant 
and obtains blood and skin samples. 
To date an analysis of the behavioral 



data obtained on these children has 
led to the findings of the positive ef- 
fect on some children of early special 
education programs. The blood and 
skin samples are the basis for genetic 
research in the university's Cyto- 
genetics Laboratory by Wilkins and 
her faculty mentor. Dr. Judith Brown, 
director of the cytogenetics section 
and professor of human genetics and 
obstetrics and gynecology at the uni- 
versity. 

Through the use of many sophisti- 
cated chromosome staining techni- 
ques. Brown and Wilkins are trying to 
identify how much of the chromo- 
some each child is missing. "No one 
knows how chromosomes break," 
says Brown. "But when you can 
determine the amount of genetic 
material (chromosome) that is miss- 
ing, it may be possible to predict the 
outcome." For the parents of chil- 
dren with Cat Cry syndrome, this 
means a clear description of the syn- 
drome and more information to help 
them raise their children. 



Tlie university's Department of IHuman Genetics receives more ttian $1 miilion 
in nonstate researcti funds annually for research. Ttie researcli efforts of its 
seven full-time faculty members vary from rare metabolic diseases to recombi- 
nant DNA researcti to a collaborative twin study with scientists in Norway. The 
department operates two outpatient clinics including a genetic counseling clinic 
and an antenatal testing clinic. Six graduate students receive stipends from the 
National Institutes of Health for research. 



15 



Conversing with a living legend 



Visiting the man whose brilliant 
intellect had commanded respect for 
most of this century, but whose 
political involvements had made him 
the object of contempt, Dr. Joseph 
Bendersky, assistant professor of 
history, experienced rare opportunity 
— the chance to interview the subject 
of his research. 

Carl Schmitt's place in German 
intellectual history has been debated 
by historians for decades. "He is one 
of the few really significant political 
theorists of our century," wrote the 
German historian Heinrich Muth, 
"but without doubt the most contro- 
versial." 

The Schmitt controversy is kept 
alive by a disagreement concerning 
his ideas as well as his political 
activities in Weimar and Nazi Ger- 




many. After establishing a reputation 
as a legal scholar, he emerged 
in the Weimar Republic (1919-33) 
as a prominent legal and political 
theorist. Schmitt published about 40 
books and countless articles dealing 
with sovereignty, dictatorship, the 
crisis of parliamentary government, 
and liberalism. He was a harsh 
critic of party politics and the 
German parliamentary system. 

In 1930 Schmitt became adviser 
to the government that ruled Germany 
until 1933 through emergency 
decrees rather than by parliamentary 
laws. He published justifications of 
the legality of this system and argued 
the constitutionality of presidental 
decrees. After Hitler seized power in 
1933, Schmitt collaborated with the 
Nazis and wrote numerous works 
supportive of the Third Reich; several 
of his writings were of an anti- 
Semitic nature. However, in 1936 he 
was publicly chastised by the SS; 
thereafter he withdrew from public 
life. In 1945 he was brought to 
Nuremberg as a witness and potential 
defendant but was never prosecuted. 

Postwar interpretations present 
Schmitt as either an opportunist or 
as a prophet of dictatorship who 
intentionally undermined democracy 



in Germany and opened the way for 
the Nazi seizure of power. Through 
personal interviews with Schmitt and 
his students and contemporaries, 
Bendersky began to develop new 
interpretations of the man and his 
actions. These were corroborated by 
documentation Schmitt provided 
from personal papers, and from 
newly culled information from German 
archives. Neither of these sources 
had been previously used by 
historians. 

Bendersky documented that 
Schmitt's theories were directed at 
providing a basis for domestic peace 
and stability, at preventing an over- 
throw of the existing political and 
legal order, and at checking the 
possible acquisition of power by the 
two extremist parties, the Commu- 
nists and the Nazis. He demonstrated 
that Schmitt's compromises with the 
Nazis affected all other aspects of 
his life and work, and although 
reprehensible, should not be allowed 
to distort significant contributions 
to political and legal theory. 



Dr. Joseph W. Bendersky has recently completed a book manuscript on 
Carl Schmitt. Bendersky's study. "Constitutional Stability and Dictatorship," 
is the first work on this enigmatic thinker. This study challenges the wide- 
spread myth that Schmitt's ideas helped undermine German democracy and 
paved the way for the Nazi state. Articles on Schmitt by Bendersky have 
appeared in the Journal of Contemporary History, the Revue europeene 
des sciences sociales, and the Canadian Journal of Political and Social 
Theory. 



16 



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Cosmetic psychology 



Treating the medical problems of 
prisoners has long been part of MCV 
Hospitals' role. Facial reconstruction 
for trauma victims and persons with 
inherited deformities was pioneered 
at MCV Hospitals by Dr. Elmer Bear, 
chairman of the Department of Oral 
and Maxillofacial Surgery. 

Scientists are now seeing a 
connection between physical/ 
medical improvements and the 
behavior of prisoners. Bear feels 
there is growing evidence that 
prisoners can become better citizens 
through self-confidence and socializa- 
tion skills facilitated by surgical repair 
of deformities. 

Dr. Louis G. Mercuri, assistant 
professor of oral and maxillofacial 
surgery at MCV Hospitals, was asked 
to look at Thomas E. Peak, a prisoner 
who could not remember the acci- 
dent that destroyed his face. The 
nightmare that followed, however, 
was all too vivid for him; culminating 
in his imprisonment on felony 
charges. 

Before his accident Peak had 
never been in serious trouble with the 
law. The accident happened on a 
cold, wet evening in late March 1977, 
after a party. Peak was not expected 




to live. The mandible and maxilla, the 
main bone of the face, were shat- 
tered beyond repair on the right side 
of Peak's face. IHis right eye was also 
destroyed. The soft palate tissue of 
his mouth was torn apart. 

After five weeks in hospital, he still 
had extreme difficulty eating solid 
foods, and he could barely make 
himself understood, because of the 
damage to his palate, which made 
his speech like that of an individual 
with a severe cleft palate problem. 

Sensitive to other people's reaction 
to his appearance. Peak found it 
impossible to live a normal life. He 
turned to drugs and alcohol to 
escape his situation and himself. He 
cannot remember why he broke into 
a store; perhaps it was to steal some 
liquor, he thinks. He is quite certain, 
though, that the "disfigurement had a 
hell of a lot to do with the trouble and 
being criminal." 

What Mercuri had in mind for Peak 
was primarily orthognathic surgery- 
operations to treat malposition of the 
bones of the face. Mercuri and his 
associates. Dr. Barry Shipman, 
maxillofacial prosthodontist, and Dr. 
Stanley Satterfield, senior oral and 
maxillofacial surgery resident, spent 
many hours talking with Peak about 
what surgery could and could not do. 
He had already lost one eye, and 
with the type of surgery needed there 
was a chance, a slight one, that he 
could lose the other eye. But Peak 
felt very strongly about having the 
surgery done. He wanted to be able 
to chew, and talk, and be 
presentable. 



A new $56 million acute care hospital Is scheduled to open on the MCV 
Campus In mld-1982. The 536-bed, 14-story structure will house the latest 
In patient care equipment and facilities. 



"Blueprints" for the reconstruction 
of Peak's face were developed 
during the planning stages which 
took about 200 hours. 

The initial phase of reconstruction 
surgery began in September 1980, 
with a four hour operation to take a 
bone graft from Peak's hip and re- 
construct his lower jaw with that 
graft. Twelve weeks later he under- 
went an 1 1 hour operation to move 
his upper jaw forward about two 
inches and to complete more bone 
grafts in the middle of his face to 
move It out. Peak underwent another 
operation to fill out the lower jaw, 
implant a glass eye, and to remove 
the many scars on his face. 

His mouth was also fitted with an 
obturator to replace the lost palate 
tissue and enable him to talk 
normally. 

Peak says the operations have 
already given him more confidence 
in himself and his appearance, and 
he was paroled in May, 1981. 

Mercuri and Bear are interested in 
a long-term study of the social 
benefits of orthognathic surgery for 
prisoners, "to gain a better assess- 
ment of its value," says Mercuri. 
However, he says his main goal in 
such surgery is to improve the 
patient's quality of life. 



79 



Portraits of working-class women 



As the United States entered World 
War II, Mary, the nineteen-year-old 
daughter of a tenant farmer, left 
home to be married to an army pri- 
vate. She never returned, follow/ing 
her soldier husband first to New Jer- 
sey, where she worked in a factory 
which made flame throwers, then to 
Texas, where she sold Christmas 
cards in the PX, then to Spokane, 
where she was an airplane me- 
chanic, then to Battle Creek, where 
she found a job on the air base, then 
finally to Ann Arbor, where, after five 
years of marriage, she obtained a 
divorce. 

Mary then worked as a waitress in 
Maryland to support herself and her 
son as well as her former husband's 
mother and stepfather. Although she 
remarried and lived in suburban 
Chevy Chase , she was still working 
as a waitress in 1970, because "I've 
never done anything else." 

Mary is just one of the women por- 
trayed in a new book. If All We Did 
Was to Weep at Home : A History of 
White Working-class Women In 
America, by Dr. Susan Estabrook 
Kennedy. In this recent book, Ken- 
nedy, associate professor of history 



'•!?", «?>wj-;v' 








and a former Guggenheim scholar, 
presents a history of these anony- 
mous heroines. Caught in the change 
of values , these women struggled for 
years to enter the middle class and 
earn the status of staying home from 
work, a status they finally achieved 
just as middle-class women began 
flooding the marketplace in search of 
work. 

Kennedy's portrait of white work- 
ing-class women finds them in the 
1 970s living somewhere between the 
terrors of poverty and the security of 
the middle class. But, so consistently 
has tenure in the working class been 
regarded as a temporary condi- 
tion that working-class women have 
generally not developed a sense of 
their place or of their history as a col- 
lective entity. Frequently they have 
not known who they were and have 
thought of themselves as in the pro- 
cess of becoming something else, 
something better. 

Yet the white ethnic woman in 
America is not a dingbat, however 
warm and humanistic the character 
of Edith Bunker ; nor is she limited to 
"tacky clothes," "plastic flowers," 
True Confessions, and an I. Q. of 47. 
Rather, says Kennedy, she is Maria 
Fava and Ann Girodanao, who ex- 
press parental and community con- 
cern over limitations on day care. 
She is Rosemarie Reed, who attend- 
ed a Washington conference on com- 
munity organizing. She is Marie 



Anastasi , who is working with senior 
citizens as well as a "mother's morn- 
ing out" group. She is one of dozens 
of women who have joined with Mon- 
signor Genno Baroni of the National 
Center for Urban Ethnic Affairs to 
deal with housing, redlining by banks, 
and neighborhood preservation. 

Overall, the period since World 
War II has been a difficult one for 
working-class women , bombarding 
them with massive social and eco- 
nomic changes which have dramati- 
cally challenged their attitudes and 
lifestyles. But as they have made 
practical adjustments in the new 
realities, these working-class 
women, on a selective basis, are 
taking up such causes as employ- 
ment, job training, unionization, day 
care, ethnic pride, and community 
preservation. Kennedy observes that 
women who are still in the working- 
class are increasingly becoming 
aware of themselves as working- 
class women and facing the frustra- 
tions of a society which has long ig- 
nored their special characteristics. 



Kennedy, who has been a member of the university faculty since 1973, specia- 
lizes In both the history of American women and twentieth century American 
history. Her latest book. Annotated Bibliography on Working-class Women, 
will soon be published. She is currently at work on a book about the post-presi- 
dential career of Herbert Hoover— a subject she began researching as a Gug- 
genheim scholar in 1978-79 and continues this year as a Hoover Scholar. 



20 







I 

f ■ 


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i '■ 





|,\1»^;;. ,. -- 




r ->'**rr- 




Virginia 
Commonwealth 
University: 

Financial 

iiighlights of 
fiscal year 1981 




New Hospital 

Current Operations 

The accompanying financial highlights reflect the growth of 
Virginia Commonwealth University and the Medical College 
of Virginia Hospitals as they rise in national prominence. 

Current funds revenues showed an increase of 12 percent 
over fiscal year 1980, to a total of $257 million. Of these 
revenues, 36 percent was derived from the state for general 
support and indigent patient care. The remaining 64 per- 
cent was primarily self-generated through charges to stu- 
dent and patients and through grants and contracts 
awarded by private and federal sources. 

VCU ranked in the top 100 universities nationwide in its 
federal support for research and training. Based on first- 
year awards, federal research and training grants and con- 
tracts increased 14 percent during the past fiscal year. 

The quality of many programs offered by VCU was im- 
proved during the fiscal year without actual budgetary in- 
creases. This enhancement was accomplished through the 
internal reallocation of funds and positions, based on rec- 
ommendations concerning the university's goals and objec- 
tives and the best means to achieve them. 

Advance planning and a sense of institutional direction 
enabled the university to succeed in its efforts during the 
1981 state legislative session, including a ten percent in- 
crease in faculty salary dollars and additional funds for non- 
salary purposes to be allocated during the 1982 fiscal year. 

Facilities 

One of the nation's most active university capital expendi- 
ture programs can be found at VCU. Over $200 million in 
construction and renovation projects are underway or in the 
planning stages. 

A $3.7 million, 1 ,000-car parking deck on the Academic 
Campus was completed during the fiscal year. Construction 
began or continued on a pharmacy/pharmacology facility, 
cancer center, 537-bed acute care hospital, and performing 
arts center at a total cost of $82.2 million. A heliport was 
built on the MCV Campus for emergency delivery of hospital 
patients. 

The master site plan for future university projects includes 
a residence center, student commons, dormitory renova- 
tions, conversion of the former city auditorium to a gymna- 
sium, North Hospital renovations, and an addition to the 
Hospital Supply and Distribution Building. 



22 




Student Apartments 



Financial Highlights 1978-1981 

(in thousands of dollars) 



Current funds revenues 

Student tuition 
Gifts/grants/contracts 
State appropriations 
Patient revenues 
Auxiliary enterprises 
Other 

Total revenues 

Current funds expenditures, transfers, and additions to 
working capital 

Education and general 

Auxiliary enterprises 

Hospital 

Net additions to plant funds, sinking funds, and working 

capital 



$256,761 



$120,679 

10,582 

122,477 

3,023 
$256,761 




Performing Arts 





Fisca 


1 Years 




1981 


1980 


1979 


1978 


$ 20,259 


17,855 


15,429 


15,144 


37,447 


30,223 


25,714 


20,729 


91,645 


85,441 


79,730 


65,845 


88,719 


76,237 


64,821 


55,209 


11,109 


10,334 


9,553 


9,509 


7,582 


8,206 


5,838 


5,426 



228,296 



105,279 

9,824 

106,028 

7,165 
228,296 



201,085 



95,449 

9,438 

90,653 

5,545 
201,085 



171,862 



78,008 

9,109 

79,655 

5,090 
171,862 



Current Funds Revenues 
Fiscal Year 1981 



Current Funds Expenditures 
Fiscal Year 1981 



contracts and 

grants 

11% 

auxiliary 
enterprises 

4% 




student tuition 
and fees 

8% 



state 
support 

36% 



patient 
revenue 

35% 



hospitals 
48% 




instruction, 
research, and 
public service 

46% 



financial aid 

and support 

2% 



auxiliary 
enterprises 

4% 



student /patient revenues 

state general fund appropriations 

sponsored program revenues 



^ educational and general 
hospitals 
auxiliary 



23 



1981 

Virginia Commonwealth University 

Board of Visitors 

Anne P. Satterfield, rector 

Douglas Ludeman, vice-rector 

Daniel T. Balfour 

Margaret P. Bemiss 

Dr. Thomas E. Butt 

Dr. Custis L, Coleman 

Benjamin W. Gotten 

F Willson Craigie, Jr. 

Rebecca B. Fewell 

Dr. Sigsby W. Gayle 

Robert J. Grey 

Dr. Charles K. Johnson 

Dr. Harold I. Nemuth 

Rhoda Thalhimer 

Jack H. Wyatt 

Edmund F. Ackell. D.M.D., M.D. 
President of the University 



An Equal Opporwnity/Affirmative Aclion Universily 



VCU PUBLICATIONS 



VCU Magazine/The President's Report 

Office of University Publications 
Virginia Commonwealtfi University 
828 West Franklin Street 
Ricfimond, VA 23284 



Address Correction Requested 



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U.S. Postage 

PAID 

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